twenty-sixteen

In twenty-sixteen, I:  Gazed in WONDER at the Renwick.  Traipsed around the City of Brotherly Love, ate Philly cheese steaks, and admired the Mural Arts decorating the city’s walls and parking lots. Inspected the crack in the Liberty Bell and imagined our forefathers in Independence Hall.  Toasted to Mike’s 62nd birthday. Worried about our youngest son’s lack of direction.  Partially de-cluttered our house, using The Life Changing Magic of Tidying Up (the Kon-Mari method), successfully weeding out clothing, accessories, kitchen appliances and books.

Flew to Dallas, Texas and then drove to Oklahoma City to attend a friend’s second wedding.  Walked on the grassy knoll and along the route where JFK was assassinated.  Stood beside larger-than-life statues of George W. Bush and his dad at the George W. Bush Presidential Library & Museum.  Walked among tulips and sat with Benjamin Franklin at the Dallas Arboretum.  Stood under a rearing horse and saw a fake rodeo at the Cowboy Museum.  Grieved near a field of empty chairs for the victims of the Oklahoma City bombing.

Stood by as contractors demolished our deck, laundry room and kitchen and then slowly built them again, in much nicer form.

Attended my first husband’s book talk in April at Politics and Prose in D.C., where he discussed his newly published book, Mathews Men.  Celebrated our daughter Sarah’s graduation, with a B.A. in English, from Virginia Commonwealth University in May.  Enjoyed a spread of bagels at Sarah’s house, and later dinner and dirty martinis at Lucy’s, with both families in attendance. 🙂

Wandered through tulips and sunflowers at Burnside Gardens in Virginia.  Visited four gardens around Philadelphia for my second trip to that city this year.  Imbibed in Cabernets and Pinot Grigios at several Virginia wineries.  Let our son’s lease in Richmond expire and watched with trepidation to see what he’d do next; fretted because we didn’t know where he would go or what he’d do.  Felt relieved when we found he took off for a Tribal Design retreat in Vancouver and finally went Hawaii, where he is now leading tours for a hostel in Maui.

Drove around the Ring Road in Iceland over a breathtaking 11 days (in search of a thousand cafés).  Climbed around, behind, and to the tops of waterfalls. Admired sweeping vistas from our Polo VW rental.  Hiked to the edge of ashy glaciers.  Poked around inside turf-roofed houses. Ate cod, cod and more cod, as well as langoustine, lamb and gas-station hot dogs.  Drove over 2700 km and walked 166,100 steps, or 70.4 miles.  Returned home with walking pneumonia, from which it took three weeks to recover.

Laughed at the “Kurios” of Cirque de Soleil.  Had a family reunion at our renovated house for my dad’s 86th birthday in September, where everyone except Adam attended.  Enjoyed sushi and sake with my sister Stephanie, who came from California.  Drove along the Skyline Drive amidst flame-colored leaves to West Virginia in early November to celebrate my 61st birthday and our 28th anniversary.  Enjoyed delicious pizza and craft beer at Pies & Pints. Strolled through the eerie ghost towns of Thurmond and Nuttallburg.  Hiked along the Endless Wall.

Barely survived our contentious election and felt heartbroken over the results.  Boycotted Facebook for a month and a half.  Realized I have nothing in common with 62 million Americans.

Read/listened to 35 books/audiobooks (meeting my Goodreads goal!), my favorites being All the Light We Cannot See, State of Wonder, Circling the Sun, The Ambassador’s Wife, and The Glass Castle.  Saw 39 movies in the theater, especially loving Joy, Eye in the Sky, A Hologram for the King, The Man Who Knew Infinity, The Music of Strangers, Dheepan, Hell or High Water, The Light Between Oceans, Sully, Girl on the Train, A Man Called Ove, Manchester by the Sea, and Lion.  Dined on Indian, Thai, Vietnamese, Mexican, French, Japanese and Italian food.

Weighed 5 pounds more at year-end than at the end of 2015, despite continual attempts to lose weight.  Took Pilates and dropped out because of utter boredom.  Walked nearly 251 hours during 276 @3-mile workouts, or about 813 miles of dedicated workouts.

Passed the Virginia Real Estate Licensing Exam but never signed with a broker. Sent my novel to 23 agents to no avail.  Applied for 32 jobs, 23 abroad and 9 stateside.  Came up empty-handed on the book publishing and the job front.  Got discouraged.  Completed a Memoir class and wrote seven chapters of a memoir.  Dreamed about how my future might look.

Celebrated Thanksgiving with Alex and Sarah, and Christmas with only Alex (Adam was in Hawaii through the holidays, jumping off waterfalls, body surfing and leading tours). Felt dismayed at our shrinking family gatherings.

Returned to Philadelphia (third time’s a charm!) to see “Paint the Revolution” at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.  Admired the Gates of Hell and Crouching Woman at the Rodin Museum.  Wandered through the Magic Gardens of mirrors and mosaics and found objects.  Walked and walked through the outdoor gallery of Mural Arts to shake 2016 out of our psyches. Drove home through Amish country in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, amidst the clip-clop of horse-drawn buggies and faded laundry flapping on clotheslines.

Cleared our heads in preparation for 2017, when we are hoping for love, peace, healing, direction, confidence, boldness and endless adventure. 🙂

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visiting museums: prolonging a journey | south asian galleries – philadelphia museum of art |

“Once you have traveled, the voyage never ends, but is played out over and over again in the quietest chambers. The mind can never break off from the journey.” ~ Pat Conroy

When an invitation to relive or extend a journey offers itself, I will always take it, no matter in what form.  Often, after visiting a foreign country, I will bask in a book set in that locale, extending my experience of that place.  When I come across buildings or gardens with particular architectural styles, those commonly found in exotic locales — European Gothic cathedrals, Chinese dragons or gates, Japanese gardens, Islamic mosques — my heart skips a beat; I ease back in time to my wanderings through those magical places.  Whenever I take urban hikes through cities or natural landscapes, I feel that same sense of adventure I had when immersing myself in an exotic place; I remember the anticipation as I set off to explore China’s Longji Rice Terraces or Nepal’s village to village trails.

I felt a sense of exhilaration, as well as nostalgia and longing, on visiting the new South Asian Galleries at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.  I was taken back to a not-so-long-ago time when I lived and traveled extensively in South Asia. I loved meandering through the happy reminders found in this place.

We had already visited the “Paint the Revolution” special exhibition and, rather than exhausting ourselves trying to see the rest of this great and sprawling museum, we picked one part of the permanent collection to visit.  We walked up to the second floor via the Great Stair Hall Balcony and headed for the reopened South Asian Galleries.

an archer at the top of the stairs
an archer at the top of the stairs

We passed through the European Art Gallery from 1100-1500 on our way to the South Asian Galleries.

First we came upon some mosaic tiles from Iran.  As these are Islamic, they reminded me of so many beautiful tiles I found in Oman, UAE, Egypt, and even in southern Spain, originating from the Moorish conquest.  These Tile Mosaic Panels from Iran (Isfahan) are from the Safavid dynasty, 1501-1736.

I visited what seemed like infinite numbers of Buddhist temples in Korea, Japan, China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Singapore, and Thailand, and, to this day, I always feel a sense of peace when I see Buddhist figures anywhere in the world.  Here, we found a gilded bronze White Tara, Buddhist Goddess of Compassion (1700s-1800s) from Inner Mongolia, Autonomous Region (Dolon Nor, Chahar province, China).  The compassionate Buddhist goddess Tara is a bodhisattva (Buddhist savior).  The eyes on her palms and forehead show that she sees and helps all living beings.

White Tara, Buddhist Goddess of Compassion
White Tara, Buddhist Goddess of Compassion

This Chinese cabinet is covered with symbols from ancient China: cranes as symbols of longevity and immortality; two deer, a stag and a doe, symbolic of domestic harmony between husband and wife; pot-shaped vase designs, painted in blue and green, suggestive of endless wealth; and lotuses representing purity.

Chinese cabinet
Chinese cabinet

The man in the detail of one panel is a successful merchant and the bolt of cloth next to him likely refers to his source of wealth.

Successful merchant on Chinese cabinet
Successful merchant on Chinese cabinet

In Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism, a mandala helps seekers of enlightenment along their spiritual path.  It represents both god’s palace and the entire cosmos in a geometric-circular format.  It may be two-dimensional (a drawing or painting) or three-dimensional (a sculpture or architectural space).

By meditating on a mandala, a person undertakes a mental journey, beginning in the outermost circle – which can hold human patrons, teachers and lesser deities – and progresses inward to become one with the god or divine couple at the mandala’s center (according to a sign at the museum).

This Satchakravarti Samvara Mandala from Tibet is made up of six smaller mandalas.  Each holds a different Buddha in sexual union with his female counterpart.

Mandalas are also found throughout Nepal; I bought a couple in Kathmandu to bring home.  I still need to find a place in my house to hang them.

Tibetan mandala
Tibetan mandala

A thangka is the Tibetan term for a painting made on cloth that can be rolled up for travel or storage and unrolled and hung for use.  Thangkas most often depict Buddhist deities, renowned religious teachers, or a mandala (a god’s cosmic palace).  In Nepal, these types of paintings are often called paubhas.  I bought one of these in Nepal, as a memento of my journey.

I cherish the mementos I have of my Asian travels, and of all my travels.  They preserve and extend my travel experience.  Collecting these items turns my travel into a collective experience of my repeated immersions into different cultures.  Displaying them in my house surrounds me with happy recollections of travel moments and what I gleaned from them – a sense of independence, resilience, adventurousness and camaraderie with fellow travelers. These mementos spark a yearning to return to places I’ve been, to explore them again with fresh eyes and a new depth of appreciation.

Tibetan thangka
Tibetan thangka

In a traditional residence of a Chinese nobleman, a reception hall was the most formal building, where official activities were conducted.  This Reception Hall from the Palace of Duke Zhou, displayed in its entirety here, was originally part of a Beijing palace built in the early 1640s.  The hall has a thirty-foot ceiling and brilliantly painted floral and animal motifs on its beams and brackets that convey auspicious wishes.  This hall is presently furnished with works of art dating between the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, the period during which the hall was in use.

It was dark in the room where this reception hall was exhibited, so it was difficult to get a photo of anything but one of the painted roof beams.  Beams such as these in China delighted me every time I encountered them and remembered to turn my eyes to the ceiling.

I love the grand vision of the museum’s Director Fiske Kimball (1888-1955), who envisioned architectural elements providing historical context to objects on display.  This whole reopened South Asian Gallery has architecture displayed in a grand way; I felt as if I were walking through ancient Asian cultures.

Painted bean in Reception Hall from the Palace of Duke Zhou
Painted bean in Reception Hall from the Palace of Duke Zhou

The hall in one large room is constructed as part of the Madana Gopala Swamy temple complex, dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu and his avatar Krishna. Apparently a woman, Adeline Pepper Gibson, purchased sixty granite carvings she found piled in the temple compound from local authorities in 1912.  Most of the complex still stands in the famous temple-city of Madurai in southern India.

Madana Gopala Swamy temple complex from Madurai in southern India
Madana Gopala Swamy temple complex from Madurai in southern India

A visit to South Asian galleries wouldn’t be complete without something from Japan. Some Japanese tea houses were set up here, but it was hard to get decent pictures in the strong light.

Japanese tea house
Japanese tea house
Japanese tea house
Japanese tea house

Surihaku theatrical robes are used exclusively in Noh drama to symbolize the uncontrolled passions of certain female roles.  This Noh Costume from 1700s Japan is a silk satin weave decorated with patinated metallic leaf applied to a stenciled paste base (surihaku), representing the reptilian skin of the character, who has been transformed into a serpent or demon by the corrosive power of jealousy and hatred.

Noh Costume
Noh Costume

A modern piece from 2008, Kotodama (the soul of language), is embellished with word-filled fragments from antique books and accounting ledgers and layered scraps of red silk from kimono undergarments.  For the artist, Maio Motoko, words had spiritual power.  Here, the assembled fragments create a visual world of words.

Kotodama
Kotodama
Detail - Kotodama
Detail – Kotodama

Finally as we exited the South Asian galleries and made our way back out through the European galleries, we stopped to admire the French Gothic Chapel.  I am always enamored by decorative doors, and these doors I find particularly beautiful.  This one reminds me of doors I found during the two years I lived in Oman.

doors from French Gothic Chapel
doors from French Gothic Chapel
Detail - doors from French Gothic Chapel
Detail – doors from French Gothic Chapel

The chapel was composed of elements from two buildings that were part of a large religious community at Aumonieres near Dijon in central France that was administered by the Knights of Saint Anthony.  This nursing order, founded in the 11th century, established many hospices.

Stained glass window from French Gothic Chapel
Stained glass window from French Gothic Chapel

We finally walked out of the Philadelphia Museum of Art by 3:20, only an hour and a half after we entered.  It was a good visit and not too tiresome, and we were able to enjoy the special exhibition and one part of the permanent collection.  We used a number of suggestions from the compact but interesting book, How to Visit a Museum.  I hope to take to heart more of David Finn’s ideas for exploring museums during these winter months, when it’s too cold and generally miserable to explore outdoors.

View of Benjamin Franklin Parkway from the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
View of Benjamin Franklin Parkway from the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
View of Benjamin Franklin Parkway from the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
View of Benjamin Franklin Parkway from the steps of the Philadelphia Museum of Art

 ~ Thursday, December 29, 2016

visiting museums: special exhibitions | the philadelphia museum of art: paint the revolution |

Living is like tearing through a museum.  Not until later do you really start absorbing what you saw, thinking about it, looking it up in a book, and remembering – because you can’t take it in all at once. ~ Audrey Hepburn

Why do we visit museums?  I don’t know about you, but I visit them for a hodgepodge of unrelated reasons.  When I’m at home near Washington, D.C., where so many museums are free, I visit them to pass the time, to have special day outings (topped off with lunch or dinner), to learn about cultures, to explore artists and artistic styles, to have something to do in miserable weather, to expand my appreciation for beauty, or simply to be inspired — either to expand my creativity or to discover new travel destinations.

Philadelphia Museum of Art: Paint the Revolution
Philadelphia Museum of Art: Paint the Revolution

While traveling, I don’t visit museums as often as I ought to, mainly because of time constraints.  I would usually prefer to be outdoors doing urban or nature hiking.  Most often I go if there is a really famous museum or collection to see, such as the Louvre or the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, or the National Archeological Museum in Athens.  Sometimes, such as when we visited the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico, we went only because it was pouring rain.  In Barcelona, I visited Fundació Joan Miró and Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya-MNAC only because I had nearly four days there and these museums happened to be on the Barcelona Bus Turista route.

To be honest, I’ve always felt overwhelmed by museums.  I’m always exhausted after I’ve visited one, as I’ve usually attempted to see the whole museum over a 3-4 hour stretch.  Because I’m rushing through, trying desperately to see everything, I feel only slightly enriched by the multitudes of things I’ve seen.  I feel like I’m not devoting enough time, or I’m devoting too much time; mostly I’m feeling unfocused and adrift.  I feel guilty because I’m giving the art too little consideration.  By the time I’m done, I’m too often relieved the whole experience is over.  Frankly, I’ve never thought about how one should visit a museum and thus have done it haphazardly.

Paint the Revolution
Paint the Revolution

That is, until I read the thin volume: How to Visit a Museum, by David Finn.  You’ll have to read the book to get the full value of David’s wisdom, but when Mike and I went to Philadelphia right before New Year to see the special exhibition themed “Paint the Revolution: Mexican Modernism, 1910-1950,”  I tried to put into practice some of David’s suggestions; one we took to heart is that we should go at our own pace and try to limit our time to 1-2 hours.

First, I thought about why I was so set on seeing this special exhibition.  It was due to leave the Philadelphia Museum of Art on January 8, so time was running out.  The event was highly publicized so I felt abuzz with excitement. I had gone to Mexico for a two-week study abroad trip in May of 2007, before I discovered my love of photography, so my pictures from there are disappointingly pathetic. I would love to go back now with a new eye to appreciate and capture the colors, art, and culture of Mexico: the whimsical parrot-hued villas and haciendas, arched doors and windows, colorful and folksy tiles, the ubiquitous Virgin Mary, plantations, Talavera vases.  I had seen the 2002 film Frida and was inspired to see some of her work as well as that of her long-time lover, Diego Rivera.  Finally, I didn’t know anything about the Mexican Revolution and wanted to learn something about it.  I wondered what finally pushes people to revolt against evil governments.

The one thing I forgot about special exhibitions is how crowded they often are.  This one was no exception.  However, I still managed to enjoy it by taking David Finn’s advice and following my instincts.  He says:  Be prepared to find what excites you, to enjoy what delights your heart and mind, perhaps to have esthetic experiences you will never forget.

I was drawn to the brilliant orange marigolds in a caravan of punt boats along a canal in The Offering of 1913 by Saturnino Herran.  The artist is known for his innovative approach to representing scenes of everyday life and indigenous customs.  Little did I know that orange marigolds are placed as offerings on altars and graves on the Day of the Dead.  The varied ages of the passengers allude to the cycle of life.  I like the detail of the baby and the girl’s face, which looks rather melancholy.

Alfredo Ramos Martinez (which by the way is my mother’s maiden name), liked to emphasize the effects of natural light and atmosphere.  This pastel shows a Flower Seller traveling with wares by a punt boat.  Seeing this pastel so close made me wish I could learn to do pastels, but first I need to learn how to draw!

Flower Seller (c. 1916) by Alfredo Ramos Martinez
Flower Seller (c. 1916) by Alfredo Ramos Martinez

Here, a man and woman, Peasants, stand in a typically Mexican landscape identified by the cacti on the ridge and the prickly pears the man carries.  This is another gorgeous pastel.

Peasants (c. 1913) by David Alfaro Siqueiros
Peasants (c. 1913) by David Alfaro Siqueiros

Some of the paintings I simply admired in passing for their use of color without studying them very carefully.

I love this Portrait of Marin Luis Guzman (a Mexican writer) by Diego Rivera, mainly for his brightly colored Mexican serape, and the equipal, the woven wicker chair, he sits on.  The top of the writer’s head is stylized in the manner of a matador’s hat. I love these symbols of Mexican culture and would be inspired to find examples of these on the streets of Mexico if I revisited.

After a Cubist period in Diego Rivera’s work, he went back to following the old masters, especially Renoir and Paul Cezanne, in this Still Life with a Bottle of Anise.

Still LIfe with a Bottle of Anise (1918) - Diego Rivera
Still Life with a Bottle of Anise (1918) – Diego Rivera

After Rivera returned from France, he traveled through Mexico for two years to capture indigenous culture.  I love the colorful mural panel depicting native couples in traditional garb dancing the Zandunga, a traditional Mexican waltz popular in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.  I love how the dance takes place under arches formed by banana trees.

Diego Rivera also painted 17,000 square feet of murals depicting the Agricultural Revolution from 1926-27.  These decorated the Ministry for Public Education in Mexico City and showed the Mexican people’s revolt against the old social order.  In the exhibition, these murals are shown as a rotating video on a blank wall, so we can stand and watch an ever-changing panorama.

Ballad of the Agricultural Revolution - Diego Rivera
Ballad of the Agricultural Revolution – Diego Rivera

As fascinated as I am by Frida Kahlo, I was excited to find this Self-Portrait in Velvet, her first self-portrait, which drew on the early Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli and his paintings of women with their elegantly elongated necks.  As a lover of textiles and rich color, I love the pattern on the shawl collar of her dress.  I also love how Frida never hesitated to portray herself with the hair above her upper lip and her ungainly eyebrows.  She seemed to embrace her less-than-feminine characteristics.

Self-Portrait in Velvet (1926) - Frida Kahlo
Self-Portrait in Velvet (1926) – Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo traveled with Diego Rivera through the United States for a number of years, and in this painting, Self Portrait on the Border Line Between Mexico and the United States, Mexico is represented by archaeological ruins, lush plants, and flowers, while the United States is mechanical and industrial, with its skyscrapers and smokestacks.  Kahlo stands between the two worlds, holding a Mexican flag.

Self Portrait on the Border Line Between Mexico and the United States (1932) - Frida Kahlo
Self Portrait on the Border Line Between Mexico and the United States (1932) – Frida Kahlo

I love the curly hair and coy face, as well as the fountains and birds, in The Powdered Woman by Adolfo Best Maugard.

I’m always drawn to Mexican architecture and colors.  It brings back memories of my visits to Mexico City and Cuernavaca in 2007.

Tepito Landscape (1923) - Abraham Angel
Tepito Landscape (1923) – Abraham Angel

As we walk further into the exhibition, we come to the paintings focused on the revolution.  Here, David Alfaro Siqueiros depicted Zapata, a man of action who led peasants against landowners, a political martyr, and the human personification of the Revolution itself.

Zapata (1931) - David Alfaro Siqueiros
Zapata (1931) – David Alfaro Siqueiros

Alfredo Ramos Martinez, after moving to California in 1928, became known for painting a picturesque world of rural flower and fruit vendors, agricultural and craft workers, and indigenous Mexican families, such as the Flower Seller I showed above.  Zapatistas (formerly Mexican soldiers) belongs to a subset of works on themes of conflict and struggle.

Finally, Luis Arenal Bastar painted The Death of Zapata in 1937.

The Death of Zapata (1937) - Luis Arenal Bastar
The Death of Zapata (1937) – Luis Arenal Bastar

Fermin Revueltas showed industrialization creeping into the Mexican economy here in Port.

Port (1921) - Fermin Revueltas
Port (1921) – Fermin Revueltas

Three Nudes by Julio Castellanos shows a spirit of classicism that was strong across Europe in the 1920s.  He gave the women dark complexions and surrounded them with the rush chairs and white plaster walls of a typical Mexican home.

Three Nudes (Breakfast) 1930 - Julio Castellanos
Three Nudes (Breakfast) 1930 – Julio Castellanos

In the original version of The Birth of Fascism, David Alfaro Siqueiros painted the female figure giving birth to a monstrous newborn with the heads of Hitler, Mussolini, and William Randolph Hearst, the U.S. newspaper publisher seen by the left as an American Fascist.  A few years later, he removed the portrait heads, painted over a view of a partially submerged Statue of Liberty, and added a swastika floating on the water’s surface.

The Birth of Fascism (1936-45) - David Alfaro Siqueiros
The Birth of Fascism (1936-45) – David Alfaro Siqueiros

Home altars in Mexico are often dedicated to the suffering Virgin Mary in Mexican folk Catholicism.  This painting, Altar de Dolores (Altar [for the Virgin] of Sorrows), is organized around a dark-skinned Virgin surrounded by objects traditionally placed on such altars, including bitter oranges symbolic of sorrow, sugar-paste angels, and sprouting wheat that refers to Eucharistic bread and by extension to the body of Christ.

Mock battles and disguises are typical of the carnival that marks the beginning of the Catholic Lent.  These enigmatic figures suggest the interaction between life and death, good and evil.

Carnival at Huejotzingo (1939) - Jose Chavez Morado
Carnival at Huejotzingo (1939) – Jose Chavez Morado

Manuel Rodriguez Lozano painted his first fresco, Pietà in the Desert, the Virgin Mary cradling the dead Christ, while he was incarcerated on false charges, probably politically motivated, in Mexico City’s Lecumberri Prison.

Pieta in the Desert (1942) - Manuel Rodriguez Lozano
Pieta in the Desert (1942) – Manuel Rodriguez Lozano

Below are a couple of posters related to Fascism.

I’m not sure of this painting’s significance, but the colorful Lion and Horse was painted by Rufino Tamayo in 1942.

Lion and Horse (1942) - Rufino Tamayo
Lion and Horse (1942) – Rufino Tamayo

Troubled Waters earned Jose Chavez Morado a prize in a 1949 Excelsior newspaper competition for paintings of Mexico City.  This allegory of social stratification, corruption, and other evils of modernization continues a perennial theme of modern Mexican art: life in the big city.

Troubled Waters (1949) - Jose Chavez Morado
Troubled Waters (1949) – Jose Chavez Morado

Finally, Juan O’Gorman won first prize in the 1949 Excelsior newspaper competition for Mexico City.  Besides showing the center of town, it is also about the capital city and the power of national symbols.  Two hands hold up a 1540 map of the gridded Aztec capital to connect the present to the past.  The figures floating over the skyline are the feathered serpent, representing the Mesoamerican deity Quetzalcoatl; the golden eagle from the Mexican coat of arms; and a pair of flying nudes with the tricolor flat emblazoned with the slogan “Long Live Mexico.”

Mexico City (1949) - Juan O'Gorman
Mexico City (1949) – Juan O’Gorman
Detail - Mexico City
Detail – Mexico City

I thoroughly enjoyed this exhibition, while also learning about Mexican culture and the Mexican Revolution. While we drove to Philadelphia, I read aloud to Mike from my phone while he drove, all about the history and important figures in the Revolution; thus, we learned some of the history before we went, further helping us to appreciate our experience.

One thing David Finn recommends in his book is that when you go to see a special exhibition, you should make it a point to visit some part of the permanent collection while you’re there.  Since we’ve come all the way to Philadelphia to see this exhibit, we also wander through the New South Asian Galleries.  I’ll share those with you in another post.  As I’ve lived and traveled throughout South Asia, visiting this part of the museum was a special way for me to travel vicariously back to that part of the world. 🙂

~ Thursday, December 29, 2016.

sunday in philadelphia: eastern state penitentiary & the philadelphia museum of art

Sunday, March 6:  This morning, we take a walk near our hotel in what is affectionately called Philadelphia’s Gayborhood.  We didn’t initially know we had booked our hotel in this area, but of course it didn’t matter to us one way or the other. I thought it quite interesting that a whole neighborhood had such a matter-of-fact name.

We are in search of breakfast.  Less than a block away we find what looks like the perfect little diner.  It is so perfect, in fact, that it has a long line and a correspondingly long wait.  As we want to squeeze in several sights this morning before heading home, we stop at the only place that can seat us right away, an IHOP.  I savor a stack of fluffy pancakes, an indulgence I don’t allow myself often!

After breakfast, we walk around for a couple of blocks, return to our hotel, pack up and check out.  Mike retrieves our car from the parking garage and we head to our first destination, Eastern State Penitentiary.

The Independent Hotel
The Independent Hotel

Eastern State Penitentiary was once the most famous and expensive prison in the world but today is a place of crumbling ruins, disheveled cells and haunting guard towers.

Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

The prison was operational from 1829 to 1971, and housed such criminals as “Slick Willie” Sutton and Al Capone.

Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

The prison’s innovative wagon wheel design became a model for nearly 300 prisons worldwide. Seven cell blocks radiate from a central surveillance rotunda. Today, it is a U.S. National Historic Landmark and its museum is open seven days a week, twelve months a year, except for a few holidays.

layout of Eastern State Penitentiary
layout of Eastern State Penitentiary

It’s fascinating to walk through the hallways that branch out like the arms of an octopus, and to peek into the open cells to imagine the isolated existence of the inmates, who were held in solitary confinement.

Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

Eastern State’s revolutionary system of incarceration, dubbed the “Pennsylvania system” or separate system, encouraged solitary confinement (the warden was legally required to visit every inmate every day, and the overseers were mandated to see each inmate three times a day) as a form of rehabilitation (Wikipedia: Eastern State Penitentiary).  The goal of such a “penitentiary” was that of penance by the prisoners through silent reflection upon their crimes and behavior, as much as that of prison security (Wikipedia: Separate system).

Some believe that the doors were small so prisoners would have a harder time getting out, minimizing an attack on a security guard. Others have explained the small doors forced the prisoners to bow while entering their cell. This design is related to penance and ties to the religious inspiration of the prison. The cells were made of concrete with a single glass skylight, representing the “Eye of God”, suggesting to the prisoners that God was always watching them (Wikipedia: Eastern State Penitentiary).

Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

According to History of Eastern State, Eastern State Penitentiary broke sharply with the prisons of its day, abandoning corporal punishment and ill-treatment. The Penitentiary would not simply punish, but move the criminal toward spiritual reflection and change. The method was a Quaker-inspired system of isolation from other prisoners, with labor. The early system was strict. To prevent distraction, knowledge of the building, and even mild interaction with guards, inmates were hooded whenever they were outside their cells. But the proponents of the system believed strongly that the criminals, exposed, in silence, to thoughts of their behavior and the ugliness of their crimes, would become genuinely penitent. Thus the new word, penitentiary.

Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

It was a pure vision by British-born architect John Haviland, placing each prisoner had his or her own private cell, centrally heated, with running water, a flush toilet, and a skylight. A private outdoor exercise yard contained by a ten-foot wall sat adjacent to each cell. Haviland employed 30-foot, barrel-vaulted hallways, tall arched windows, and skylights throughout, creating a church-like atmosphere. He wrote of the Penitentiary as a forced monastery, a machine for reform. But he added an impressive touch: a menacing, medieval Gothic facade, built to intimidate; it ironically implied that physical punishment took place behind those grim walls (History of Eastern State).

Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

Chicago’s most famous mob boss, Alphonse “Scarface” Capone, spent eight months at Eastern State in 1929-1930. Arrested for carrying a concealed, deadly weapon, this was Capone’s first prison sentence. His time in Eastern State was spent in relative luxury. His cell on the Park Avenue Block had fine furniture, oriental rugs, and a cabinet radio (Eastern State Penitentiary: Notable Inmates).

Here’s a peek into his cell.

peeking into Al Capone's cell
peeking into Al Capone’s cell
Al Capone's cell
Al Capone’s cell
Eastern State Penitentiary
Eastern State Penitentiary

It’s a sad but photogenic place to walk around, especially on such a gray day.  It’s quite depressing to imagine a life of isolation in such a place.

Though we can see in some of the cells, most of them remain off-limits and filled with original rubble and debris from years of neglect.

peeking through the bars
peeking through the bars
aisle at Eastern State Penitentiary
aisle at Eastern State Penitentiary
modern lock
modern lock
behind bars
behind bars

In one cell is an artist’s installation: Greg Cowper’s Specimen.  The artist drew his inspiration from the collection of eighteen species of butterflies and moths — some quite rare — gathered by an Eastern State Penitentiary prisoner living in solitary confinement.  One hundred twenty years later, the artist returned to the cellblocks to expand on the prisoner’s collection.  He has collected and displays here more than 500 specimens, representing more than 150 species of insects and invertebrates, all captured on the penitentiary grounds.

specimens
specimens

By the 1960s, the aged prison was in sad disrepair. The Commonwealth closed the facility in 1971, 142 years after it admitted Charles Williams, Prisoner Number One. It wasn’t until 1994 that the Pennsylvania Prison Society opened the prison for tours (History of Eastern State).

After our tour of the prison, we walk down toward the Philadelphia Museum of Art, walking by this sprawling mural.

street mural
street mural

We find a beautiful church across from the museum.

church
church

Many people who visit the Philadelphia Museum of Art don’t set foot inside, and we are numbered among them.  We don’t really have time to go inside and we don’t want to be rushed through. The museum, founded in 1876, has a 225,000 object collection and 80 period rooms covering 2,000 years of creativity.  We’ll have to return another time.

Today, we mainly drop by to see the bronze statue of Rocky Balboa, from the 1976 movie Rocky, starring Sylvester Stallone as a fictional Philly boxer.

Rocky Balboa
Rocky Balboa

Of course, we also have to walk up the Rocky steps, where Rocky sprinted up in the movie, stretching his arms out at the top.

Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Mike runs up the Rocky steps
Mike runs up the Rocky steps

We also admire the view atop the granite hill to the Eakins Oval, punctuated by a uniformed George Washington atop a horse.  Beyond it, down the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, is City Hall.

view of Benjamin Franklin Parkway and Philadelphia from the steps of the museum
view of Benjamin Franklin Parkway and Philadelphia from the steps of the museum

The AMOR statue in front extends the theme of Philly’s reputation as the “City of Brotherly Love.”

Amor
Amor
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art

Finally, we head back toward our car, passing the 40-foot-high painted steel sculpture Iroquois, a sculpture by Mark di Suvero.  Born in Shanghai, China, he emigrated to the United States in 1941, when he was 8 years old.  The artist created the sculpture to honor Native Americans, and its central knot shape and brilliant red color suggests a Chinese influence.

Iroquois
Iroquois
Church
Church

Finally, we head back near the prison where we parked, first stopping at a sandwich shop to grab some lunch, and drive the three hours back home.  It was a great belated birthday weekend for Mike, despite the lingering winter weather. 🙂