thomas jefferson’s monticello & jefferson vineyards

Thursday, August 15: Monticello was the plantation home of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, who started building the estate when he inherited a large tract of land from his father at the age of 26.  The plantation was originally 5,000 acres, with cultivation of tobacco and mixed crops by primarily slave labor.

Jefferson designed every aspect of Monticello, an icon of architecture and a World Heritage Site, constructing and modifying its buildings and landscape over 40 years.

Entering Monticello
Entering Monticello

Even though I’ve visited Monticello many times in my life, as I’m a native Virginian, it’s been many years since I’ve been here.  Today, Sarah and I visit the plantation, first seeing a film about Thomas Jefferson and then taking a shuttle up to the mansion for a house tour.

A side view of Monticello
A side view of Monticello
Monticello
Monticello
me at Monticello
me at Monticello
Sarah at Monticello
Sarah at Monticello

I’m impressed by the 15-minute film because not only does it discuss Jefferson’s accomplishments, but it describes his angst over not being able to see a solution to the problem of slavery in the early American economy.   His slave-holding directly contradicted his beliefs about equality among men, as espoused in the Declaration of Independence, which he authored.  The film also discusses historians’ belief that Jefferson fathered children with one of his slaves.

Monticello
Monticello

The claim that Thomas Jefferson fathered children with Sally Hemings, a slave at Monticello, entered the public arena during Jefferson’s first term as president, and it has remained a subject of discussion and disagreement for two centuries. Based on documentary, scientific, statistical, and oral history evidence, the Thomas Jefferson Foundation (TJF) Research Committee Report on Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings (January 2000) remains the most comprehensive analysis of this historical topic.  Ten years later, TJF and most historians believe that, years after his wife’s death, Thomas Jefferson was the father of the six children of Sally Hemings mentioned in Jefferson’s records, including Beverly, Harriet, Madison, and Eston Hemings (Monticello: Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: A Brief Account).

Monticello from the lawn
Monticello from the lawn
Monticello and surrounding gardens
Monticello and surrounding gardens

I’m impressed that the Thomas Jefferson Foundation doesn’t try to gloss over the contradictions evident in Jefferson’s vision for mankind vs. the way he lived his private life.  This admits to his fallibility, and his humanity.

gardens at Monticello
gardens at Monticello

The house tour is excellent, with the tour guide giving us a history of Jefferson’s involvement in Monticello, public affairs, horticulture, and family life.  Sadly, we’re not allowed to take photos inside the house.

Monticello
Monticello

The house, which Jefferson designed, was based on neoclassical design as described in the books of the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.  The house sits on the summit of an 850-foot (260 m) – high peak in the mountains south of the Rivanna Gap.  Its Italian name translates as “little mount.”

Monticello
Monticello

Our guide tells us that Jefferson left explicit instructions regarding the monument to be erected over his grave.  In an undated document, Jefferson supplied a sketch of the shape of the marker, and the epitaph with which he wanted it to be inscribed:

“…on the faces of the Obelisk the following inscription, & not a word more:

Here was buried
Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of American Independence
of the Statute of Virginia for religious freedom
Father of the University of Virginia

“because by these,” he explained, “as testimonials that I have lived, I wish most to be remembered.” (Monticello: Jefferson’s Gravestone)

gardens at Monticello
gardens at Monticello

The plantation at full operations included numerous outbuildings for specialized functions, a nailery, and quarters for domestic slaves along Mulberry Row near the house; gardens for flowers, produce, and Jefferson’s experiments in plant breeding; plus tobacco fields and mixed crops. Cabins for field slaves were located further from the mansion.

butterfly at the Monticello gardens
butterfly at the Monticello gardens

After leaving Monticello, Sarah and I head to Jefferson Vineyards, where we sit on the lawn in Adirondack chairs and drink glasses of Merlot before heading back into Charlottesville to have lunch at Revolutionary Soup.

Jefferson Vineyards
Jefferson Vineyards
Sarah at Jefferson Vineyards
Sarah at Jefferson Vineyards

To read more about Monticello, see:
Monticello
Wikipedia: Monticello

a morning walk at the university of virginia

Thursday, August 15: In the morning, Sarah and I get up early.  She goes for a run and I go for a walk through part of the University of Virginia campus.  It’s a beautiful sprawling campus, with green lawns, stately trees and old brick buildings.  It’s a lovely place to take a walk.

University of Virginia
University of Virginia

Thomas Jefferson founded the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1819. It was the first nonsectarian university in the United States and the first to use the elective course system.  It is now a public research university and is one of the eight original Public Ivy universities.  It is the only university campus in the U.S.A. designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.  In the 2013 edition of U.S. News and World Report’s National University Rankings, the school was listed as America’s 2nd best public university; tied with UCLA and surpassed only by UC Berkeley (Wikipedia: University of Virginia).

Jefferson considered the founding of the University to be one of his greatest achievements. Undertaking the project toward the end of his life—after a long, illustrious career that included serving as a colonial revolutionary, political leader, writer, architect, inventor, and horticulturalist—he was closely involved in the University’s design. He planned the curriculum, recruited the first faculty, and designed the Academical Village, a terraced green space surrounded by residential and academic buildings, gardens, and the majestic center-point—the Rotunda.

The Rotunda
The Rotunda
The Rotunda
The Rotunda
Thomas Jefferson and the Rotunda
Thomas Jefferson and the Rotunda
The Rotunda
The Rotunda

The most recognizable symbol of the University, the Rotunda stands at the north end of the Lawn and is half the height and width of the Pantheon in Rome, which was the primary inspiration for the building. The Lawn and the Rotunda have served as models for similar designs of “centralized green areas” at universities across the United States.

The Rotunda from the Lawn
The Rotunda from the Lawn
The Rotunda
The Rotunda
the view of the Lawn from the steps of the Rotunda
the view of the Lawn from the steps of the Rotunda

Flanking both sides of the Rotunda and extending down the length of the Lawn are ten Pavilions interspersed with student rooms. Each has its own classical architectural style, as well as its own walled garden separated by Jeffersonian Serpentine walls. These walls are called “serpentine” because they run a sinusoidal course, one that lends strength to the wall and allows for the wall to be only one brick thick, one of many innovations by which Jefferson attempted to combine aesthetics with utility.

Pavilions interspersed with student rooms
Pavilions interspersed with student rooms
Pavilions with student rooms
Pavilions with student rooms
serpentine walls
serpentine walls

The University opened for classes in 1825 with a faculty of eight and a student body numbering sixty-eight. Jefferson took great pains to recruit the most highly qualified faculty, five of whom were found in England and three in the United States. Instruction was offered in ancient languages, modern languages, mathematics, moral philosophy, natural philosophy, chemistry, law, and medicine. The students came from the American South and West; interestingly, though, most were not Virginians (University of Virginia: Founding the University).

an academic building on the campus
an academic building on the campus

In the late 19th century, community members raised funds to establish a non-denominational church on the University Grounds. The UVA Chapel is a Gothic Revival building. The University Chapel no longer holds regular religious services, but weddings and memorial services still take place inside.

UVA Chapel
UVA Chapel
University Chapel
University Chapel
UVA Chapel
UVA Chapel

Finally, there are residential colleges which are part of the campus, including Brown College at Monroe Hill.

Brown College at Monroe Hill
Brown College at Monroe Hill

After my walk and Sarah’s run, we shower and prepare to visit another part of Thomas Jefferson’s neighborhood, his home of Monticello.